Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Cookware and bakeware are extremely broad and particular materials can widen this spectrum as it affects both the quality of the item and the food that comes out of it, particularly in terms of thermal conductivity and how much food sticks to the item when in use.
A good cooking pot design has an “overcook edge” which is what the lid lies on. Two cooking pots (Grape) from medieval Hamburg circa 1200-1400 Replica of a Viking cooking-pot hanging over a firth history of cooking vessels before the development of pottery is minimal due to the limited archaeological evidence.
Among the first of the techniques believed to be used by Stone Age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. In addition to exposing food to direct heat from either an open fire or hot embers, it is possible to cover the food with clay or large leaves before roasting to preserve moisture in the cooked result.
For people without access to natural heated water sources, such as hot springs, heated stones (“ pot boilers “) could be placed in a water-filled vessel to raise its temperature (for example, a leaf-lined pit or the stomach from animals killed by hunters). In many locations the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels.
Bamboo tubes sealed at the end with clay provided a usable container in Asia, while the inhabitants of the Tehuacán Valley began carving large stone bowls that were permanently set into a hearth as early as 7,000 BC. According to Frank Hamilton Cushing, Native American cooking baskets used by the Zuni (Zuni) developed from mesh casings woven to stabilize gourd water vessels.
This indicates a steady progression from use of woven gourd casings to waterproof cooking baskets to pottery. Other than in many other cultures, Native Americans used and still use the heat source inside the cookware.
Cooking baskets are filled with hot stones and roasting pans with wood coals. Native Americans would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelist Louis L'Amour.
As long as the flames did not reach above the level of water in the basket, the leaves would not burn through. The development of pottery allowed for the creation of fireproof cooking vessels in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Coating the earthenware with some type of plant gum, and later glazes, converted the porous container into a waterproof vessel. After the development of metal cookware there was little new development in cookware, with the standard Medieval kitchen utilizing a cauldron and a shallow earthenware pan for most cooking tasks, with a spit employed for roasting.
At the 1968 Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a “Freedom Trash Can”, which included pots and pans. Metal pots are made from a narrow range of metals because pots and pans need to conduct heat well, but also need to be chemically unreactive so that they do not alter the flavor of the food.
Aluminum is commonly available in sheet, cast, or anodized forms, and may be physically combined with other metals (see below). Due to the softness of the metal, it may be alloyed with magnesium, copper, or bronze to increase its strength.
It is used, for example, to make Dutch ovens lightweight and bunt pans heavy duty, and used in ladles and handles and woks to keep the sides at a lower temperature than the center. Sauces containing egg yolks, or vegetables such as asparagus or artichokes may cause oxidation of non-anodized aluminum.
Pots and pans are cold-formed from copper sheets of various thicknesses, with those in excess of 2.5 mm considered commercial (or extra-fort) grade. Less than 1 mm wall thickness is generally considered decorative, with exception made for the case of .75–1 mm banished copper, which is hardened by hammering and therefore expresses performance and strength characteristic of thicker material.
Copper thickness of less than .25 mm is, in the case of cookware, referred to as foil and must be formed to a more structurally rigid metal to produce a serviceable vessel. Such applications of copper are purely aesthetic and do not materially contribute to cookware performance.
In certain circumstances, however, unlined copper is recommended and safe, for instance in the preparation of meringue, where copper ions prompt proteins to denature (unfold) and enable stronger protein bonds across the sulfur contained in egg whites. This allows precise control of consistency and texture while cooking sugar and pectin-thickened preparations.
Alone, fruit acid would be sufficient to cause leaching of copper byproducts, but naturally occurring fruit sugars and added preserving sugars buffer copper reactivity. The use of tin dates back many centuries and is the original lining for copper cookware.
Although the patent for canning in sheet tin was secured in 1810 in England, legendary French chef August Scoffer experimented with a solution for provisioning the French army while in the field by adapting the tin lining techniques used for his cookware to more robust steel containers (than only lately introduced for canning) which protected the cans from corrosion and soldiers from lead solder and botulism poisoning. Decorative copper cookware, i.e., a pot or pan less than 1 mm thick and therefore unsuited to cooking, will often be electroplated lined with tin.
As a relatively soft metal abrasive cleansers or cleaning techniques can accelerate wear of tin linings. Wood, silicone or plastic implements are to preferred over harder stainless steel types.
For a period following the Second World War, pure nickel was electroplated as a lining to copper cookware. Nickel had the advantage of being harder and more thermally efficient than tin, with a higher melting point.
Despite its hardness nickel's wear characteristics were similar to that of tin, as nickel would be plated only to a thickness of <20 microns, and often even less owing to nickel's tendency to plate somewhat irregularly, requiring milling to produce an even cooking surface, albeit sticky compared to tin and silver. Copper cookware with aged or damaged nickel linings is eligible for retinning, or possibly replacing with nickel, although this service is difficult if not impossible to find in the US and Europe in the early 21st century.
Silver is also applied to copper by means of electroplating, and provides an interior finish that is at once smooth, more durable than either tin or nickel, relatively non-stick and extremely thermally efficient. The disadvantages of silver are expense and the tendency of sulfurous foods, especially classical, to discolor.
Worn silver linings on copper cookware can be restored by stripping and re-electroplating. Copper cookware lined with a thin layer of stainless steel is available from most modern European manufacturers.
Among the advantages of stainless steel are its durability and corrosion resistance, and although relatively sticky and subject to food residue adhesions, stainless steel is tolerant of most abrasive cleaning techniques and metal implements. Stainless steel forms a pan's structural element when bonded to copper and is irreparable in the event of wear or damage.
Using modern metal bonding techniques, such as cladding, copper is frequently incorporated into cookware constructed of primarily dissimilar metal, such as stainless steel, often as an enclosed diffusion layer (see coated and composite cookware below). Being a reactive material, cast iron can have chemical reactions with high acid foods such as wine or tomatoes.
In addition, some foods (such as spinach) cooked on bare cast iron will turn black. Seasoning creates a thin layer of oxidized fat over the iron that coats and protects the surface, and prevents sticking.
Further, little notches on the inside of the lid allow the moisture to collect and drop back into the food during the cooking. Although the Dough (literally, “gentle fire”) can be used in an oven (without the ice, as a casserole pan), it is chiefly designed for stove top use.
Stainless steel's drawbacks for cooking use are that it is a relatively poor heat conductor and its non-magnetic property, although recent developments have allowed the production of magnetic 18/10 alloys, which thereby provides compatibility with induction cook tops, which require magnetic cookware. Since the material does not adequately spread the heat itself, stainless steel cookware is generally made as a cladding of stainless steel on both sides of an aluminum or copper core to conduct the heat across all sides, thereby reducing “hot spots”, or with a disk of copper or aluminum on just the base to conduct the heat across the base, with possible “hot spots” at the sides.
Carbon steel Carbon-steel cookware can be rolled or hammered into relatively thin sheets of dense material, which provides robust strength and improved heat distribution. Like cast iron, carbon steel must be seasoned before use, usually by rubbing a fat or oil on the cooking surface and heating the cookware on the stove top or in the oven.
With proper use and care, seasoning oils polymerize on carbon steel to form a low-tack surface, well-suited to browning, Millard reactions and easy release of fried foods. Carbon steel is traditionally used for crêpe and fry pans, as well as woks.
Clad aluminum or copper Cladding is a technique for fabricating pans with a layer of efficient heat conducting material, such as copper or aluminum, covered on the cooking surface by a non-reactive material such as stainless steel, and often covered on the exterior aspect of the pan (“dual-clad”) as well. Generally, the thicker the interface layer, especially in the base of the pan, the more improved the heat distribution.
Some cookware uses a dual-clad process, with a thin stainless layer on the cooking surface, a thick core of aluminum to provide structure and improved heat diffusion, and a foil layer of copper on the exterior to provide the “look” of a copper pot at a lower price. This creates a piece that has the heat distribution and retention properties of cast iron combined with a non-reactive, low-stick surface.
Because of its light weight and easy cleanup, enamel over steel is also popular for cookware used while camping. When seasoned surfaces are used for cookery in conjunction with oil or fat a stick-resistant effect is produced.
Some form of post-manufacturing treatment or end-user seasoning is mandatory on cast-iron cookware, which rusts rapidly when heated in the presence of available oxygen, notably from water, even small quantities such as drippings from dry meat. Food tends to stick to unseasoned iron and carbon steel cookware, both of which are seasoned for this reason as well.
Other cookware surfaces such as stainless steel or cast aluminum do not require as much protection from corrosion but seasoning is still very often employed by professional chefs to avoid sticking. PTFE non-stick Skillet with non-stick cooking surfaceSteel or aluminum cooking pans can be coated with a substance such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, often referred to with the generalized trademark Teflon) in order to minimize food sticking to the pan surface.
Coated pans are easier to clean than most non-coated pans, and require little or no additional oil or fat to prevent sticking, a property that helps to produce lower fat food. Using metal implements, harsh scouring pads, or chemical abrasives can damage or destroy cooking surface.
The coating is stable at normal cooking temperatures, even at the smoke point of most oils. However, if a non-stick pan is heated while empty its temperature may quickly exceed 260 °C (500 °F), above which the non-stick coating may begin to deteriorate, changing color and losing its non-stick properties.
They can be used for both cooking in a fire pit surrounded with coals and for baking in the oven. Historically some glazes used on ceramic articles contained levels of lead, which can possess health risks; although this is not a concern with the vast majority of modern ware.
This rubbery material should not to be confused with the silicone resin used to make hard, shatterproof children's dishware, which is not suitable for baking. Intention, application, technique and configuration also have a bearing on whether a cooking vessel is referred to as a pot or a pan.
Generally within the classic batteries DE cuisine a vessel designated “pot” is round, has “ear” handles in diagonal opposition, with a relatively high height to cooking surface ratio, and is intended for liquid cooking such as stewing, stocking, brewing or boiling. Vessels with a long handle or ear handles, a relatively low height to cooking surface ratio, used for frying, searing, reductions, braising and oven work take the designation “pan”.
In Europe, clay roasters remain popular because they allow roasting without adding grease or liquids. Casseroles are often made of metal, but are popular in glazed ceramic or other vitreous material as well.
They can be used for stews, braised meats, soups and a large variety of other dishes that benefit from low-heat, slow cooking. Dutch ovens are typically made from cast iron or natural clay and are sized by volume.
A wonder pot, an Israeli invention, acts as a Dutch oven but is made of aluminum. It consists of three parts: an aluminum pot shaped like a Bunt pan, a hooded cover perforated with venting holes, and a thick, round, metal disc with a center hole that is placed between the wonder pot and the flame to disperse heat.
Grill pans are fry pans that are ribbed, to let fat drain away from the food being cooked. Griddles are flat plates of metal used for frying, grilling and making pan breads such as pancakes, injury, tortillas, chapatis and crêpes.
Traditional iron griddles are circular, with a semicircular hoop fixed to opposite edges of the plate and rising above it to form a central handle. Some have multiple square metal grooves enabling the contents to have a defined pattern, similar to a waffle maker.
Crêpe pans are similar to griddles, but are usually smaller, and made of a thinner metal. These may be permanently attached to a heat source, similar to a hot plate.
Larger pans of similar shape with two ear handles are sometimes called “sauce-pots” or soup pots” (3–12 liters). A variation on the saucepan with sloping sides is called a “Windsor”, ease or fait-tout “, and is used for evaporative reducing.
Saucepans with rounded sides are called saucers which also provide more efficient evaporation and generate a return wave when shaken. This allows stock to simmer for extended periods of time without major reducing.
Stock pots come in a large variety of sizes to meet any need from cooking for a family to preparing food for a banquet. This shape allows a small pool of cooking oil in the center of the wok to be heated to a high temperature using relatively little fuel, while the outer areas of the wok are used to keep food warm after it has been fried in the oil.
“Low levels of aluminum can lead to behavioral and morphological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease and age-related neurodegeneration”. 9–10 ^ a b Chem ours, Key Safety Questions About Teflon™ Nonstick Coatings ^ Harvey error: no target: CITEREFHoulihanThayerKlien2003 (help) “...a generic non-stick frying pan preheated on a conventional, electric stove top burner reached 736 °F in three minutes and 20 seconds...” ^ Ross, Alice (20 January 2001).
A baker places a hot sheet pan full of bread rolls on to a cooling packaging sheet with handlesThese pans, like all bakeware, can be made of a variety of materials, but are primarily aluminum or stainless steel. Common features that may be found in sheet pans include: one or more flat edges to assist food removal, one or more raised edges (lips) to retain food, a contiguous rim to retain either food or shallow liquid, handles to assist in moving the pan into and out of the oven, a layer of insulation (typically air) designed to protect delicate food from burning (air bake pan), or perforations to aid in speeding cooking (pizza tray).
Mass, thermal conductivity, and color of the pan play key roles in achieving a uniform cooking temperature. Unlike other bakeware, smaller sheet pans function as convenient task trays.
A pan that has at least one side flat, so that it is easy to slide the baked product off the end, may be called a cookie sheet. Professional sheet pans used in commercial kitchens typically are made of aluminum, with a 25 mm (1 in) raised lip around the edge, and come in both standard and non-standard sizes.
In many cases, American and European sizes are matched closely enough to be used interchangeably. Size Name Outer width(in) Outer depth(in) Outer height(in) Outer width(mm) Outer depth(mm) Outer height(mm) Full 26 18 1 66045725 Two Thirds (Three Quarters) 21 15 1 53338125 Half 18 13 1 45733025 Quarter 13 9.5 1 33024125 Eighth 9.5 6.5 1 24116525 Note that values are approximate and vary based on rim size and style.
While many home chefs have embraced this newest line of bakeware products, some have been slightly reluctant to depart from more traditional metal or glass baking pans. That's because these old standards have stood the test of time, whereas a silicone pan does have a slight learning curve.
The cheerfully bright colors of silicone bakeware do attract attention, but it's their general flimsiness that raises a few skeptic bakers' eyebrows. However, manufacturers have been very quick to allay their visions of these soft pans folding in on themselves or having to clean up batter messes, by designing optional or companion racks or 'sleds' that provide the much-needed stability, especially for the larger pans.
They can take the heat (within their temperature rating) and you can even use them in a hot skillet to scramble your eggs. Since the spatulas made the grade, it was on to bigger silicone baking tools such as a general-purpose loaf pan.
A slight twist of the pan and sides just pulled away, revealing an evenly baked delicious banana loaf that gently rolled out onto the cutting board. You should not assume a particular pan will fit your cake mix; read the size details.
No greasing, no fuss and so much better than using paper liners which may or may not easily remove at serving time. Each piece of silicone has its own limitation as to manufacturer-recommended maximum oven temperature, which is usually stamped right on the product.
Using a cookie sheet underneath will provide stability even for smaller pans. Always use a metal baker's sheet or specially designed sled or rack underneath wider or larger silicone pans.
There's a multitude of uses for silicone bakeware from specialty cakes to everyday breads and muffins. You can freeze conversation-inspiring shaped ice cubes for the punch bowl or use the pans for your favorite gelled salads or desserts.
Others found that baking times needed to be adjusted or results were not fully cooked in the middle. Because silicone bakeware has earned a sketchy reputation and basically a love it or hate it relationship, don't be surprised if you have to try more than one baking pan or brand before you enjoy this bakeware.
Since I’m no baker, I decided to pick her brain to help out assembling this list setting out all the different types of bakeware. Clear out your cabinets to make some space for the ultimate bakeware collection.
Others may have an air pocket in between the layers of aluminum, with an eye on protecting food from burning. Baking sheets may have one or more raised edges to help you remove the food in and out of the oven.
Found in practically every kitchen, cake pans are made in round, square and rectangular shapes. Which shape you choose; depends on what type of cake creation you are trying to make.
For example, if you go with round or square shapes, you may have decided to make a layer cake. Have one on hand and you can use it for other things, such as roasting vegetables, baking biscuits, cookies or scones.
While I’m no expert baker, I am an experienced loaf pan user from my single days when I made meatloaf weekly. Some desserts, such as cheesecakes and tortes are very vulnerable when you try and remove them from a traditional cake pan.
Another ideal scenario when a spring form pan is called for is when you are making a wedding cake. When you remove the spring form wall, a perfect, nice and clean edge is left behind.
If you are making a turkey or ham this holiday season, you may become well-acquainted with a roasting pan. It is essentially a large, deep pan that may have a removable rack inside it where the meat sits atop.
The roasting pan may be large enough to hold vegetables and other ingredients in the bottom, where they can sit inside the meat juice and absorb all the goodness. For example, many people choose to buy disposable aluminum foil roasting pans to cook their meats in, so that they don’t have to worry about cleaning up afterwards.
High-quality, reusable roasting pans are made of either stainless steel, coated enamelware, cast iron, or covered clay. A favorite at family gatherings, a casserole dish is essentially a large, deep pan that is used to bake delicious concoctions in the oven.
Today, a wide variety of foods are prepared in baking dishes, which include brownies, cornbread, lasagna, cobbler, meats and poultry. This highly-enriched pastry contains a proportionally high amount of butter and eggs.
Its crust is golden, dark and flaky, as it is given an egg wash after the proofing process. A brioche pan or mold has fluted sides which are used to form the columns on the base of the bread that are alternating.
You can leave them plain, roll them in powdered sugar, frost them, or add sprinkles for the kiddos if you like. Adapted by various countries, flan is simply a sweet dessert that consists of whole eggs, milk, sugar and vanilla.
This causes the cake to have a plateau in the middle with raised edges when it is turned out of the pan. Flan pans may be constructed from tin, steel or non-stick covered metal.
It has a curved base, so that long lengths of dough are able to be laid horizontally within them. This lets the steam escape, allows the bread’s crust to brown and become crisp.
Very common in households across America, muffin tins are a staple in most kitchens. Muffin tins are generally available in 3 different sizes, ranging from mini, to medium, to large.
Made of glass, aluminum, stoneware, or ceramic, a pie plate is another baking staple in any well-stocked kitchen. Round, a pie plate has shallow, slanted sides that measure 1 to 1 ½ inches deep.
If you plan on making popovers, regular muffin tins just won’t do the trick. A popover pan has larger containers than a traditional muffin tin does, and the cups are spaced much further away from each other.
A shortbread pan is made of a heavy cast-iron, or possibly a coated aluminum surface. It may have a decorative mold inside it, which gives the cookie a special texture or design.
Cakes, dessert bars or cornbread can also be cooked inside a shortbread pan. Round or oblong, a tart pan will have smooth or fluted sides and a removable bottom.
Quiches are usually baked in a ceramic tart pan that does not have a removable bottom. This type of tart pan doubles as a serving dish for the Quiché.
On the other hand, if the pan is aluminum, it may reflect the heat and the food may not brown as well. Let’s take a moment to talk about some of the most common materials used in bakeware.
It is a great thing to be able to make a meal and not have to worry about scrubbing dishes afterwards. You can take a dish with you to a gathering and not worry about having to bring anything back home.
Glass that is ovenproof can be taken out of the refrigerator or freezer and be put right into a hot oven. By using synthetic polymer, this type of bakeware is created by actual silicone.
This rubber-like texture is made from natural occurring elements and is FDA approved as a food-safe substance. One of the best reasons to use silicone bakeware is for its ability to withstand high temperatures that glass and metal aren’t always able to handle.
The advantages of stone bakeware is that your food will retain its warmth long after it has been taken out of the oven. It should be noted that stone bakeware takes a little longer to heat up in the oven.