Graduated Cylinder Used to measure a precise volume of a liquid. Ring Stand Used to hold or clamp laboratory glassware and other equipment in place, so it does not fall down or come apart.
Thermometer (digital or alcohol, not mercury) Used to measure temperature in Celsius. Utility Clamp Used to secure glassware to a ring stand.
Volumetric Pipe Used to measure small amounts of liquid very accurately. Wash Bottle Used to rinse pieces of glassware and to add small quantities of water.
Watch Glass Used to hold solids while they are being weighed or to cover a beaker. Wire Gauze Used to support a container, such as a beaker, on a ring stand while it is being heated.
For your security, this online session is about to end due to inactivity. Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment used in scientific work, and traditionally made of glass.
Glass can be blown, bent, cut, molded, and formed into many sizes and shapes, and is therefore common in chemistry, biology, and analytical laboratories. Glassware evolved as other ancient civilizations including the Syrians, Egyptians, and Romans refined the art of glassmaking.
The art of glassmaking in 16th century Venice was refined to the point intricate shapes could be made. Some time before the turn of the 19th century laboratory glass manufacture from soda lime started in Germany.
Before World War I, glass producers in the United States had difficulty competing with German laboratory glassware manufacturers because laboratory glassware was classified as educational material and was not subject to an import tax. During World War I, the supply of laboratory glassware to the United States was cut off.
In 1915 Corning Glass works developed borosilicate glass, which was a boon to the war effort in the United States. Though after the war, many laboratories turned back to imports, research into better glassware flourished.
Laboratory glassware is typically selected by a person in charge of a particular laboratory analysis to match the needs of a given task. The task may require a piece of glassware made with a specific type of glass.
The task may be readily performed using low cost, mass-produced glassware, or it may require a specialized piece created by a glassblower. Quartz glass can withstand very high temperatures and is transparent in certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Darkened brown or amber (actinic) glass can block ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Coated glassware is specially treated to reduce the occurrence of breakage or failure.
Satanized (siliconized) glassware is specially treated to prevent organic samples from sticking to the glass. Scientific glassblowing, which is practiced in some larger laboratories, is a specialized field of glassblowing.
Many parts are available fused to a length of glass tubing to create highly specialized piece of laboratory glassware. Note the barbed sidearm on the filtering Alaska glass adapter with a hose barb on the left and a ground glass connector on the right taper joint stopper with PTFE sealing ring.
Note the optical transparency of the narrow sealing ring pressured by glass joint on the right. A thread T-bore plug valve used as a side arm on a Scalene flask. A common straight bore glass stopcock attached with a plastic plug retainer in the side arm of a Scalene flask. When using glassware it is often necessary to control the flow of fluid. For a leak-tight connection a ground glass joint is used (possibly reinforced using a clamping method such as a Keck clips).
Fluid flow can be switched selectively using a valve, of which a stopcock is a common type fused to the glassware. Fluid, or any material which flows, can be directed into a narrow opening using a funnel.
Metrology Laboratory glassware can be used for high precision volumetric measurements. With high precision measurements, such as those made in a testing laboratory, the metrological grade of the glassware becomes important.
The metrological grade then can be determined by both the confidence interval around the nominal value of measurement marks and the traceability of the calibration to an NIST standard. Silica is considered insoluble in most substances with a few exceptions such as hydrofluoric acid.
Glassware can be soaked in a detergent solution to remove grease and loosen most contamination. These contamination are then scrubbed with a brush or scouring pad to remove particles which cannot be rinsed.
When cleaning is finished it is common practice to triple rinse glassware before suspending it upside down on drying racks. Beakers are simple cylindrical shaped containers used to hold reagents or samples.
Flasks are narrow-necked glass containers, typically conical or spherical, used in a laboratory to hold reagents or samples. Bottles are containers with narrow openings generally used to store reagents or samples.
Test tubes are used by chemists to hold, mix, or heat small quantities of solid or liquid chemicals, especially for qualitative experiments and assays Desiccators of glass construction are used to dry materials or keep material dry. “Improved Recovery of Morphine from Biological Tissues Using Siliconized Glassware “.
“Quality assurance of volumetric glassware for the determination of vitamins in food”. Laboratory glassware as a contaminant in silicate analysis of natural water samples”.
But those made of glass are more common due to time tested use and suitable for all the experiments. The glass beaker has readings on the surface to indicate volume levels in the container.
a) To store liquids like solvents, solutions, reagent mixtures, oils, etc. Measuring cylinder: It is similar to a beaker but has a very little diameter and more height.
It is widely used to take a desired volume of liquid into a beaker. To make up the final volume of mixtures by small additions using a pipette.
This is a conical shaped glass apparatus with a round bottom. Conical flask does not contain graduated readings in most cases.
Since the mixture requires constant stirring, the sample is taken in a conical flask and the reactive agent is added from the burette drop by drop till with constant swirling of the flask and its contents till the endpoint. Since the mouth is narrow, the fumes of reaction can be made to escape safely without exposing the lab interiors.
Test tubes are mostly non-graduated as one can just add the desired volume from a pipette or burette. They are also required in large numbers as small amounts of reagents can be taken at a time.
For heating reactions by taking a small quantity of mixtures using a test tube holder. For the distillation of solutions, wherein the substance is taken in the flask and heated from the bottom.
The volumetric flasks are round at the bottom with a long narrow neck. Uses: This flask is especially needed for filtration and crystallization of extracts in the chemistry lab.
In lab often one needs transparent funnels to pour solvents, powders and other liquids into other containers. These funnels are very useful as they minimize the chances of waste due to spillage.
Uses: This helps in the safe transfer of liquids and also prevents spillage and wastage. It can hold liquid without leaks when closed with a stopper on top.
The vent at the bottom of the flask can be opened and individual solvents can be drained out. Uses: This is useful for the separation of substances from a mixture based on their polarity or solubility.
Ex: Lipids can be separated from an aqueous extract by using petroleum ether. Burette : It is a long cylindrical-shaped glass tube with a stopper at one end.
This burette has uniform diameter all along the length with clearly marked graduation indicating of volume. A burette needs a stand to hold it in place as shown in the image below.