Funnel Used to transfer liquids or fine-grained materials into containers with small openings. Ring Stand Used to hold or clamp laboratory glassware and other equipment in place, so it does not fall down or come apart.
Thermometer (digital or alcohol, not mercury) Used to measure temperature in Celsius. Utility Clamp Used to secure glassware to a ring stand.
Volumetric Pipe Used to measure small amounts of liquid very accurately. Wash Bottle Used to rinse pieces of glassware and to add small quantities of water.
Watch Glass Used to hold solids while they are being weighed or to cover a beaker. Wire Gauze Used to support a container, such as a beaker, on a ring stand while it is being heated.
For your security, this online session is about to end due to inactivity. Common types of glassware include beakers, flasks, pipettes, and test tubes.
Magi Studio / Getty Images Beakers are the workhorse glassware of any chemistry lab. The spout makes it easy to pour liquids into other containers.
Finally, the wide opening makes it easy to add materials to the beaker. Bogdan Drama / Eye / Getty Images There are multiple types of flasks.
For some situations, either a beaker or an Erlenmeyer flask is a good choice, but if you need to seal a container, it's much easier to put a stopper in an Erlenmeyer flask or cover it with para film than it is to cover a beaker. Stuart Money / Getty Images Test tubes are good for collecting and holding small samples.
Thanakorn Srabubpha / Eye / Getty Images Pipettes are used to deliver small volumes of liquids reliably and repeatedly. This type of glassware isn't intended to be exposed to flames or extreme temperatures.
Pipettes can be deformed by heat and lose their measurement accuracy under extreme temperatures. It's almost always made of borosilicate glass so that it can withstand heating under a direct flame.
ElementalImaging / Getty Images Volumetric flasks are used to prepare solutions. Each features a narrow neck with a marking, usually for a single precise volume.
Because temperature changes cause materials, including glass, to expand or shrink, volumetric flasks aren't meant for heating. These flasks can be stoppered or sealed so that evaporation won't change the concentration of a stored solution.
Laboratory glassware is manufactured with different compositions, each possessing unique properties that are useful in different experimental conditions. This glass is manufactured through the addition of small amounts of boron, and is often used in bakeware, such as Pyrex.
However, both borosilicate and standard glass contain impurities, resulting in reduced optical quality. Now that you understand the different types of glass used in the laboratory, let’s look at common glassware, as well as related paraphernalia.
Any measurements, or graduations, on this equipment are approximate, and they are best used for procedures that do not require high levels of accuracy. Test tubes, which are relatively small cylindrical vessels, are also used to store, heat, and mix chemicals.
Watch glasses are used when a large surface area is needed for a small volume of liquid. The crystallization dish is similar to the watch glass, proving a large surface area for liquids.
Each type of flask is shaped for its purpose, but all are designed with wide bodies and narrow necks, allowing the contents to be mixed without spilling. The flat bottom allows it to be directly heated and used in simple boiling and condensation procedures.
While the graduated cylinder is versatile, volumetric glassware is used when a higher level of accuracy is required. If the equipment is calibrated to transport the measured volume, it is marked “TD” for “To deliver”.
Conversely, other pieces of volumetric glassware are only calibrated to be accurate while holding the measured volume, and are marked “TC” for “To Contain”. Unlike the apparatuses that are accurate only to contain, the volumetric pipette is used to deliver a specific volume with a high degree of accuracy.
The burette is used to deliver variable, but precise, volumes of liquid, controlled with the stopcock. First, the round-bottom, or boiling flask, is designed to allow for even heating and stirring, to drive chemical reactions.
Powder funnels have wider stems designed for dispensing solids and viscous liquids. It has a specialized shape, with a wide top for mixing, and a narrow bottom leading to a stopcock for the separation.
The flask resembles an Erlenmeyer in shape, but has a barbed side arm for the vacuum hose. In some chemical processes, laboratory glassware may need to be sealed, connected, or supported.
They can be manufactured with holes to allow for the insertion of tubes, thermometers, or stirrers, while still providing an airtight seal. Clamps provide this support by connecting to a piece’s neck on one end, and a retort stand on the other.
While some glassware should always be secured, clamping can also be used to ensure that components stay upright during a procedure. Observation of naturally occurring, spontaneous reactions can be performed in the lab by replicating their original conditions.
In the Miller-Urey experiment, the environment of early earth was simulated in a round-bottomed flask to investigate the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds. A large manifold of interlocking glassware helped to provide the necessary atmospheric gasses, which was then sparked, simulating lighting.
The glass beaker has readings on the surface to indicate volume levels in the container. a) To store liquids like solvents, solutions, reagent mixtures, oils, etc.
Measuring cylinder: It is similar to a beaker but has a very little diameter and more height. It is widely used to take a desired volume of liquid into a beaker.
To make up the final volume of mixtures by small additions using a pipette. This is a conical shaped glass apparatus with a round bottom.
Conical flask does not contain graduated readings in most cases. Since the mixture requires constant stirring, the sample is taken in a conical flask and the reactive agent is added from the burette drop by drop till with constant swirling of the flask and its contents till the endpoint.
Since the mouth is narrow, the fumes of reaction can be made to escape safely without exposing the lab interiors. Test tubes are mostly non-graduated as one can just add the desired volume from a pipette or burette.
They are also required in large numbers as small amounts of reagents can be taken at a time. For heating reactions by taking a small quantity of mixtures using a test tube holder.
For the distillation of solutions, wherein the substance is taken in the flask and heated from the bottom. The volumetric flasks are round at the bottom with a long narrow neck.
Uses: This flask is especially needed for filtration and crystallization of extracts in the chemistry lab. In lab often one needs transparent funnels to pour solvents, powders and other liquids into other containers.
These funnels are very useful as they minimize the chances of waste due to spillage. Uses: This helps in the safe transfer of liquids and also prevents spillage and wastage.
It can hold liquid without leaks when closed with a stopper on top. The vent at the bottom of the flask can be opened and individual solvents can be drained out.
Uses: This is useful for the separation of substances from a mixture based on their polarity or solubility. Ex: Lipids can be separated from an aqueous extract by using petroleum ether.
Burette : It is a long cylindrical-shaped glass tube with a stopper at one end. This burette has uniform diameter all along the length with clearly marked graduation indicating of volume.
A burette needs a stand to hold it in place as shown in the image below. They are used to transferring small amounts of liquids with precise volumes.
Other glassware is used to measure specific volumes, so it can't change its size appreciably over room temperatures. Chemicals may be heated and cooled so the glass needs to resist shattering from thermal shock.
Use this photo gallery to learn the names and uses of different types of chemistry laboratory glassware. The flat bottom and spout allow this piece of glassware to be stable on the lab bench or hot plate, plus it's easy to pour a liquid without making a mess.
A Büchner funnel may be placed on top of a Büchner flask (filter flask) so that a vacuum may be used to separate or dry a sample. Eloy, Wikipedia CommonsChemistry Laboratory Glassware Jenny So and Anna Devathasan test the vitamin C content in the Risen drink at Tauranga College, March 29, 2007, in Auckland, New Zealand. Bursts may be used to calibrate the volumes of other pieces of glassware, such as graduated cylinders.
Most bursts are made of borosilicate glass with PTFE (Teflon) stopcocks. A burnt or burette is graduated tube of glassware that has a stopcock at its bottom end.
A cold finger is most commonly used as part of a sublimation procedure. Rifleman 82, Wikipedia Commons condenser is a piece of laboratory glassware used to cool hot liquids or vapors. This particular condenser is called a Virus column. Dennyboy34, Wikipedia Commons crucible is a cup-shaped piece of laboratory glassware that is used to hold samples which are to be heated to high temperatures.
Many crucibles come with lids. Twisp, Wikipedia Commons cuvette is a piece of laboratory glassware that is intended to hold samples for spectroscopic analysis. Cuvettes are made from glass, plastic, or optical-grade quartz. Jeffrey M. VinocurChemistry Laboratory Glassware Chemistry Demonstration. George Doyle, Getty Images An Erlenmeyer flask is a cone-shaped container with neck, so you can hold the flask or attach a clamp or use a stopper.
Most Erlenmeyer flasks are made of borosilicate glass so that they can be heated over a flame or autoclave. You can seal them with a cork or stopper or place plastic or paraffin film or a watch glass on top of them.
The end of the neck of the flask is typically a conical ground glass joint. This type of flask is often used when even heating or boiling of a sample is needed. Rama, Wikipedia Commons audiometer is a piece of glassware used to measure the change in volume of a gas.
It resembles a graduated cylinder, with the bottom end immersed in water or mercury, the chamber filled with gas, and the top end closed. Skiaholic, Wikipedia CommonsChemistry Laboratory Glassware A Florence flask or boiling flask is a round-bottom borosilicate glass container with thick walls, capable of withstanding temperature changes. Nick Louis/Getty Images A Florence flask or boiling flask is a round-bottom borosilicate glass container with thick walls, capable of withstanding temperature changes. It's important to inspect a Florence flask or any piece of glassware prior to heating or cooling and to wear safety goggles when changing the temperature of glass.
Improperly heated glassware or weakened glass may shatter when the temperature is changed. Fritz Walter Paul Friedrich invented this condenser in 1912. Ryanaxp, Wikipedia Commons funnel is a conical piece of glassware that terminates in a narrow tube.
A graduated funnel may be called a conical measure. Donovan GovanChemistry Laboratory Glassware Cornell Student Tarzan Sir vent prepares Hyperion perforated for chemical analysis. Chemistry Laboratory Glassware Chemistry class at King Edward VI High School for Girls (October 2006). Christopher Furlong, Getty Images Graduated cylinders are used to measure volumes accurately.
From left to right, these are flame, septum and polyethylene cap sealed NMR tubes. Edgar181, Wikipedia CommonsChemistry Laboratory Glassware These Petra dishes illustrate the sterilization effects of ionizing air on the growth of Salmonella bacteria. Ken Hammond, Scalars Petri dishes come as a set, with a flat bottom dish and a flat lid that rests loosely over the bottom. Petri dishes that are intended to be autoclave are made from a borosilicate glass, such as Pyrex or WIMAX.
Petri dishes commonly are used for culturing bacteria in a microbiology lab, containing small living specimens, and holding chemical samples. A pyrometer or specific gravity bottle is a flask with a stopper that has a capillary tube through it, which allows air bubbles to escape.
A retort is a spherical glass vessel that has a downward-bending neck which acts as a condenser. Ott KöstnerThis is an image of several round-bottomed flasks. It has a sidearm fitted with a stopcock that allows the vessel to be filled with gases or evacuated.
They are used in extractions. Glowimages / Getty Images Separator funnels are used to dispense liquids into other containers, usually as part of an extraction process. Separator funnels are open at the top, to add liquid and allow for a stopper, cork, or connector.
The sloping sides help make it easier to distinguish layers in the liquid. Separator funnels are used when you need a controlled flow rate, but not the measuring accuracy of a burette or pipette.
A Soviet extractor is a piece of laboratory glassware that was invented in 1879 by Franz on Soviet to extract a compound that has limited solubility in a solvent. Slashme, Wikipedia Commons stopcock is an important part of many pieces of lab glassware. A Thieve tube is a piece of laboratory glassware that is designed to contain and heat an oil bath.
Thistle tubes may be used to add liquid through a stopper to an existing apparatus. Richard Franz Jr. Chemistry Laboratory Glassware Volumetric flasks are used to accurately prepare solutions for chemistry.TRBfoto/Getty Images Volumetric flasks are used to accurately prepare solutions for chemistry. This piece of glassware is characterized by a long neck with a line for measuring a specified volume.
Watch glasses are nice for holding small samples for observation under a low-power microscope. Watch glasses are used for evaporating liquid off of samples, such as growing seed crystals.
About the Book Author Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD and Kate Brut lag teach Math and Science at Fusion Learning Center/Fusion Academy in Solano Beach, CA. Learn how to use glassware and select the correct type, whatever your tipple, with this handy guide.
It may be that you have a perfectly measured cocktail, but the size of the mouth can help release the aromas. It may be that you have a wonderful new liquor in your hand, but once in a drinking vessel it can be warmed-up, or stay cool, by the design of the glass.
Enhanced aromas and correct temperatures are two key factors to improving the drinking experience. A long stem will also keep the hand away from the drink in order to prevent it from becoming too warm.
This is in order to retain the lighter, more delicate notes that white wines will generally have. (3) Flute Glass Sparkling wine needs even less surface area, as this will help preserve the bubbles and stop it from going flat too quickly.
Hence, the flute glass, with its tall, thin bowl and small mouth. It is used to serve cocktails without ice, or ‘up.’ Its shape evolved from the fact that all traditional cocktails would have interesting aromas, and the large mouth allows the nose of the drinker to get close to the surface of the drink and fully enjoy its scent and taste.
Examples: Dark ‘N’ Stormy, Bloody Mary, Mojito, gin & tonic. A solid base aids with drinks that require ‘muddled’ ingredients.
It derives from traditional nosing glasses used by master blenders, borrowing the wide bowl to show off the color and help expose the aromas, but instead uses a tapered mouth to allow easier drinking. The large bowl allows the drink to be swirled, and a shorter mouth traps aromas and allows the drinker to enjoy a more prominent smell as they sip.