Funnel Used to transfer liquids or fine-grained materials into containers with small openings. Graduated Cylinder Used to measure a precise volume of a liquid.
Ring Stand Used to hold or clamp laboratory glassware and other equipment in place, so it does not fall down or come apart. Thermometer (digital or alcohol, not mercury) Used to measure temperature in Celsius.
Utility Clamp Used to secure glassware to a ring stand. Volumetric Pipe Used to measure small amounts of liquid very accurately.
Wash Bottle Used to rinse pieces of glassware and to add small quantities of water. Watch Glass Used to hold solids while they are being weighed or to cover a beaker.
Wire Gauze Used to support a container, such as a beaker, on a ring stand while it is being heated. Most laboratory glassware is manufactured with borosilicate glass, a particularly durable glass that can safely be used to hold chemicals being heated over a flame and to contain acidic or corrosive chemicals.
All laboratory glassware should be cleaned immediately following used to prevent chemical residue from congealing or hardening. Beakers are glass containers that come in a variety of sizes and can be used for mixing and transporting fluids, heating fluids over an open flame and containing chemicals during a reaction.
Glass funnels can be used to guard against spillage when pouring chemicals from one vessel to another, and they can also be fitted with a filter to separate solids from liquids. Separator funnels are also used for filtration and extraction, having a bulb-shaped enclosed body fitted with a stopper on top to prevent spillage when the funnel is inverted, along with a stopcock at the spout’s base, which can be used to gradually lower the bulb’s internal pressure.
Graduated cylinders are tall, narrow containers used for measuring volume. While they’re more accurate than beakers, measuring their contents to within one percent of actual volume, they’re not used for quantitative analysis of fluids that require a high degree of precision.
Bumper rings should be placed near the graduated cylinder’s top for maximum protection. Pipes are used to draw precisely measured amounts of fluid from a receptacle.
Volumetric pipes are crafted to draw one specific quantity of a sample, while Moor pipes have graduations that allow the lab worker to draw varying amounts of a sample. She continues by pouring in her solvent and then gradually adds drops of water as needed to bring the level of her solution up to the flask’s graduated line.
All the items in the drawers are listed below; each image links to a description of the glassware or equipment. Glassware used for distillation, reflux, and other organic chemistry laboratory procedures fits together due to the ground glass joints incorporated into each piece of glassware.
Floating around the labs from past years or for special procedures are also 24/40 and 19/22 sized standard taper glassware. Another reason is that each piece of glassware must be strong enough not to implode under reduced pressure and not break under high heat.
Standard taper glassware, especially round bottom flasks, are susceptible to star cracks. Beaker Erlenmeyer flaskSide-arm flaskBuchner funnelsStemmed funnelsSeparatory funnelThermometerWatch glassGraduated cylinders rodVialCrystallizing dish Pasteur Pipe This equipment is used to support the reaction apparatus or manipulate the contents.
Versatile clamp3-pronged clamping clampSpatulaScoopulaForcepsKeck clips bar This equipment does not belong in the lab drawers but should be left out for everyone to use. Each student fume hood should contain a heating mantle, stir motor, variant and ring stand.
But those made of glass are more common due to time tested use and suitable for all the experiments. The glass beaker has readings on the surface to indicate volume levels in the container.
a) To store liquids like solvents, solutions, reagent mixtures, oils, etc. Measuring cylinder: It is similar to a beaker but has a very little diameter and more height.
It is widely used to take a desired volume of liquid into a beaker. To make up the final volume of mixtures by small additions using a pipette.
This is a conical shaped glass apparatus with a round bottom. Conical flask does not contain graduated readings in most cases.
Since the mixture requires constant stirring, the sample is taken in a conical flask and the reactive agent is added from the burette drop by drop till with constant swirling of the flask and its contents till the endpoint. Since the mouth is narrow, the fumes of reaction can be made to escape safely without exposing the lab interiors.
Test tubes are mostly non-graduated as one can just add the desired volume from a pipette or burette. They are also required in large numbers as small amounts of reagents can be taken at a time.
For heating reactions by taking a small quantity of mixtures using a test tube holder. For the distillation of solutions, wherein the substance is taken in the flask and heated from the bottom.
The volumetric flasks are round at the bottom with a long narrow neck. Uses: This flask is especially needed for filtration and crystallization of extracts in the chemistry lab.
In lab often one needs transparent funnels to pour solvents, powders and other liquids into other containers. These funnels are very useful as they minimize the chances of waste due to spillage.
Uses: This helps in the safe transfer of liquids and also prevents spillage and wastage. It can hold liquid without leaks when closed with a stopper on top.
The vent at the bottom of the flask can be opened and individual solvents can be drained out. Uses: This is useful for the separation of substances from a mixture based on their polarity or solubility.
Ex: Lipids can be separated from an aqueous extract by using petroleum ether. Burette : It is a long cylindrical-shaped glass tube with a stopper at one end.
This burette has uniform diameter all along the length with clearly marked graduation indicating of volume. A burette needs a stand to hold it in place as shown in the image below.
They are used to transferring small amounts of liquids with precise volumes. Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment used in scientific work, and traditionally made of glass.
Glass can be blown, bent, cut, molded, and formed into many sizes and shapes, and is therefore common in chemistry, biology, and analytical laboratories. Glassware evolved as other ancient civilizations including the Syrians, Egyptians, and Romans refined the art of glassmaking.
The art of glassmaking in 16th century Venice was refined to the point intricate shapes could be made. Some time before the turn of the 19th century laboratory glass manufacture from soda lime started in Germany.
Most laboratory glassware was manufactured in Germany up until the start of World War I. Before World War I, glass producers in the United States had difficulty competing with German laboratory glassware manufacturers because laboratory glassware was classified as educational material and was not subject to an import tax.
During World War I, the supply of laboratory glassware to the United States was cut off. In 1915 Corning Glass works developed borosilicate glass, which was a boon to the war effort in the United States.
Though after the war, many laboratories turned back to imports, research into better glassware flourished. Further important technologies impacting the development of laboratory glassware included the development of polytetrafluoroethylene, and a drop in price to the point laboratory glassware is, in some cases, more economical to throw away than to re-use.
The task may require a piece of glassware made with a specific type of glass. The task may be readily performed using low cost, mass-produced glassware, or it may require a specialized piece created by a glassblower.
Quartz glass can withstand very high temperatures and is transparent in certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Darkened brown or amber (actinic) glass can block ultraviolet and infrared radiation.
Coated glassware is specially treated to reduce the occurrence of breakage or failure. Satanized (siliconized) glassware is specially treated to prevent organic samples from sticking to the glass.
Scientific glassblowing, which is practiced in some larger laboratories, is a specialized field of glassblowing. Many parts are available fused to a length of glass tubing to create highly specialized piece of laboratory glassware.
Note the barbed sidearm on the filtering Alaska glass adapter with a hose barb on the left and a ground glass connector on the right taper joint stopper with PTFE sealing ring. Note the optical transparency of the narrow sealing ring pressured by glass joint on the right. A thread T-bore plug valve used as a side arm on a Scalene flask. A common straight bore glass stopcock attached with a plastic plug retainer in the side arm of a Scalene flask. When using glassware it is often necessary to control the flow of fluid.
For a leak-tight connection a ground glass joint is used (possibly reinforced using a clamping method such as a Keck clips). Fluid flow can be switched selectively using a valve, of which a stopcock is a common type fused to the glassware.
Fluid, or any material which flows, can be directed into a narrow opening using a funnel. Metrology Laboratory glassware can be used for high precision volumetric measurements.
With high precision measurements, such as those made in a testing laboratory, the metrological grade of the glassware becomes important. The metrological grade then can be determined by both the confidence interval around the nominal value of measurement marks and the traceability of the calibration to an NIST standard.
Silica is considered insoluble in most substances with a few exceptions such as hydrofluoric acid. Glassware can be soaked in a detergent solution to remove grease and loosen most contamination.
These contamination are then scrubbed with a brush or scouring pad to remove particles which cannot be rinsed. When cleaning is finished it is common practice to triple rinse glassware before suspending it upside down on drying racks.
Beakers are simple cylindrical shaped containers used to hold reagents or samples. Flasks are narrow-necked glass containers, typically conical or spherical, used in a laboratory to hold reagents or samples.
Bottles are containers with narrow openings generally used to store reagents or samples. Test tubes are used by chemists to hold, mix, or heat small quantities of solid or liquid chemicals, especially for qualitative experiments and assays Desiccators of glass construction are used to dry materials or keep material dry.
“Quality assurance of volumetric glassware for the determination of vitamins in food”. “Laboratory glassware as a contaminant in silicate analysis of natural water samples”.
Laboratory glassware is manufactured with different compositions, each possessing unique properties that are useful in different experimental conditions. However, both borosilicate and standard glass contain impurities, resulting in reduced optical quality.
Now that you understand the different types of glass used in the laboratory, let’s look at common glassware, as well as related paraphernalia. Any measurements, or graduations, on this equipment are approximate, and they are best used for procedures that do not require high levels of accuracy.
Test tubes, which are relatively small cylindrical vessels, are also used to store, heat, and mix chemicals. Their design allows for multiple samples to be easily manipulated, stored, and observed at once.
Watch glasses are used when a large surface area is needed for a small volume of liquid. The crystallization dish is similar to the watch glass, proving a large surface area for liquids.
Each type of flask is shaped for its purpose, but all are designed with wide bodies and narrow necks, allowing the contents to be mixed without spilling. The flat bottom allows it to be directly heated and used in simple boiling and condensation procedures.
While the graduated cylinder is versatile, volumetric glassware is used when a higher level of accuracy is required. Conversely, other pieces of volumetric glassware are only calibrated to be accurate while holding the measured volume, and are marked “TC” for “To Contain”.
Unlike the apparatuses that are accurate only to contain, the volumetric pipette is used to deliver a specific volume with a high degree of accuracy. First, the round-bottom, or boiling flask, is designed to allow for even heating and stirring, to drive chemical reactions.
Powder funnels have wider stems designed for dispensing solids and viscous liquids. It has a specialized shape, with a wide top for mixing, and a narrow bottom leading to a stopcock for the separation.
The flask resembles an Erlenmeyer in shape, but has a barbed side arm for the vacuum hose. In some chemical processes, laboratory glassware may need to be sealed, connected, or supported.
They can be manufactured with holes to allow for the insertion of tubes, thermometers, or stirrers, while still providing an airtight seal. However, because these joints are not mechanically strong, plastic connector clips are used to prevent them from separating.
Clamps provide this support by connecting to a piece’s neck on one end, and a retort stand on the other. While some glassware should always be secured, clamping can also be used to ensure that components stay upright during a procedure.
Observation of naturally occurring, spontaneous reactions can be performed in the lab by replicating their original conditions. In the Miller-Urey experiment, the environment of early earth was simulated in a round-bottomed flask to investigate the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds.
A large manifold of interlocking glassware helped to provide the necessary atmospheric gasses, which was then sparked, simulating lighting. When synthesizing organic molecules, it is often necessary to apply heat for long periods of time.